Davit Leavitt’s “Gravity” from diverse critical perspectives.

David Leavitt’s “Gravity” seen from diverse critical perspectives.


This paper aims to approach Davit Leavitt’s “Gravity” from diverse critical perspectives, namely, Formalism, Structuralism, Marxism, Feminism and Psychoanalytic literary criticism. It is an academic task while it must be born in mind that reading is a versatile and many-layered activity that will never be fully accomplished by means of only one critical perspective but by a kaleidoscopic joint approach encompassing all of them. The story has been chosen from Joyce Carol Oates’ anthology The Oxford Book of American Short Stories because it is a superb example of how literature works: making language non-automatic, condensing in a few pages a universal myth, showing how feelings are translated into material commodities and finally depicting how people struggle to ultimately disembowel their identities, eventually discovering that they are far from the socially accepted canon and in desperate need of any small victory over universal gravity.

A Multi-critical Perspective of David Leavitt’s “Gravity”

For its study the story has been divided into four parts, the two initial paragraphs marked [1] and [2], a central body of mainly dialogue: [3] and the final paragraph: [4].

[1] In the opening of the story the reader is confronted with the choice Theo had to take. A STRUCTURALIST critic who analyses the units of a system and the rules that make that system work will notice the linear syntacmatic sequence of the two possibilities:

  1. a drug that would save his sight


  • a drug that would keep him alive

They are identical but for the last three words in both phrases which imply an opposition though using two verbs with similar meaning: save and keep. A logical analysis concludes that what will save his life will make him ‘not keep’ his sight.  The conflict was resolved by Theo choosing ‘not to go blind’. A FORMALIST critic will notice the antithesis and how the author makes the construction ‘unfamiliar’ by not repeating one of the propositions of the alternative, therefore increasing the difficulty and length of the perception because “the process of perception is an aesthetic end in itself and must be prolonged” (Shklovsky 18). Considering this same last phrase, a STRUCTURALIST critic will further argue that “not to go blind” is more than just the opposite of “to go blind” or ‘lose his sight’ for as “J. A. Greimas has illustrated with his squaring of the opposition any semiotic system of contrasting elements also imply the negation of each term in the binary” (Felluga, 3), a contradictory pair, which in this case would be “non-to go blind” and “non-not to go blind”. As the “bond between Signifier and Signified is arbitrary” (Sausurre, 79) thus there can exist more than one Signified for each Signifier, leading to multiplicity of meanings. In our case ‘ not to go blind’ meaning not only to retain sight but be able to see- possibly more than just the physical environment eventually grasping the ultimate reason of Theo’s circumstance.

He stopped the pills   

 and started the injections

these required the implantation of an ( ) above his heart

and within a few days

the clouds in his eyes started to clear up                             

he could see again.

A FORMALIST critic echoing Osip Brik would say that the rhythm and stress in Leavitt’s prose (which can be noted throughout the text) “are only the obvious manifestation of particular instances of basic euphonic laws” and that “the figures play an aesthetic role in its own right” (qtd. in Eichembaun, 9).

If we turn to what a PSYCHOANALYTIC critic would have to say, we will immediately highlight the fact that psychoanalytic literary criticism begins with Freud himself who “notices that literary texts are like dreams that express unconscious material in the form of complex displacements and condensations ( ) literature displaces unconscious desires, drives, and motives into imagery that might bear no resemblance to its origin but that nonetheless permits it to achieve release of expression” (Rivkin and Ryan, 125). For Freud, in ‘The Uncanny’, fear for castration takes the form not of a literal image, but of a metaphoric substitute that displaces the protagonist’s anxiety onto a fear of losing his eyes (160) and Theo’s choice can be taken as a flagrant example.

A STRUCTURALIST critic will note then that this opening paragraph refers to the first plot element – fright to lose his sight – as well as points out one basic “mytheme”(Lévi-Strauss, 104) in the laying out of the Oedipus complex-myth which the rest of the story will further develop and which the reader can predict due to Leavitt’s hermeneutic narrative: the reader knows from the beginning that Theo chose to die and for a FORMALIST critic the story will then keep the reader’s interest making him/her want to know how this will happen. The voice we hear is that of a limited omniscient narrator, the FORMALIST critic would also point out: the writer adopting the stance of an impersonal consciousness, itself not an agent in the events of the story but able to observe the thoughts of one of the characters. In our story it first seems to be narrating from Theo’s perspective. But soon we realize it is really Sylvia’s feelings which are put through from inside, while Theo is seen from an outer perspective. It will not be until the last paragraph of the story that we are to deepen in Theo’s thoughts while he is the one who tries to analyse Sylvia’s. The FORMALIST critic will also point out the use of analepsis or flashback taking us back to Theo’s childhood in the third sentence of this first paragraph.  The anecdote depicted presents Sylvia – his mother- for the first time. The Psychoanalytic critic will immediately observe the powerful mother-character shaping the Oedipus complex/myth. The boy does not want to admit he needs glasses and his mother, who gave him birth, who called him Theo (God)  shoves her own harlequin glasses onto his face (in the same impulsive way she will later toss the bowl to him) not caring what people would think because he can finally see.  A FEMINIST critic is bound to note the family-rearing role the story gives to Sylvia as well as her influence in Theo’s personality. Moreover, the same critic will abound in noting that Sylvia has suffered an inmasculating process taking on her back the task of further protecting her child as well as bringing him up. A FORMALIST reading of the last phrase of the paragraph: ‘he could see’ will highlight that it is a sort of antistrophe taking us back to the previous ‘he could see (again)’ and further clarifying it: Theo had been deprived of sight in an earlier stage of his life and it had been his mother who had given him sight. Thus the ultimate purpose of the analepsis is to let the reader know how it had been the same when Theo was twelve: his mother protecting him – enhancing his sight.  A PHYCHOANALITIC critic would argue that Theo had not been able to acquire his gender identity, not learning to give up his mother and identify with his father. It can be noted again how the idea of fear of castration takes the form of fear of losing his sight. Immediately a FEMINIST critic would point out that Sylvia feels it is her duty to deprive herself of her own sight during the projection of the film in order to allow her son to watch it. 


The same idea is further outlined in the second paragraph which starts: ‘Because he was dying again, Theo moved back to his mother’s house in New Jersey.’ A FORMALIST critic will point out the paradox of the situation. Cleanth Brooks explained in “The Language of Paradox” that paradox is the appropriate language of literature (58). The writer gives us a blurred impression that by helping him regain his sight once more Sylvia is provoking his death as well. And that is quite so. Paradox, though not a direct method, is the best to depict multiple implications. Sylvia will be his nurse because having had already gone through her own mother’s death she is fit to accomplish the same task with her son. Once more the FEMINIST critic will note the further female role of caring and seeing through her parent’s death in patriarchal society. The pipe stuck in his chest is the ‘constant reminder of how wide and unswimmable the gulf was becoming between him and the ever-receding shoreline of the well’. A FORMALIST criticism will justify the various metaphors and the subsequent contrast as a means to bring the reader to the conclusion that Theo is definitely dying and that realizes it. Immediately the contrast: Sylvia is cheerful – intricately though.  She takes him to the library and the museum and shields him when his thinness and cane draw stares. A PHYCOANALISTIC critic will continue composing the image of castrated youth, and a STRUCTURALIST critic will see as well in Theo’s use of a cane, another mytheme, one more constituent unit of the Oedipus myth that normally is associated with the unsteady walking when deprived of sight.


The central part of the story confronts the reader -the FORMALIST critic will notice- with another strange collocation of words in the first sentence: “they were shopping for revenge”. The skillful use of foil here is a crucial part of the writer’s repertoire. Setting things in systematic contrast to each other is one way of drawing intense attention to details the writer refuses to spell out because spelling things out would dilute the flow of events. A STRUCTURALIST critic will argue on his side, following Sausurre that because language is a system of interdependent terms in which the value of each term results solely from the simultaneous presence of the others, the reader must stop and think in all the weak meanings ‘shopping for revenge’ arises. But the most emblematic analysis could come from a MARXIST critic who will logically conclude that shopping refers to the act of acquiring a commodity, which by definition is “an object outside us, a thing that by its properties satisfies human wants of some sort or another” (Marx, 268). For Sylvia this want is ‘revenge’ and the MARXIST critic will further claim that as the utility of a thing makes it a use-value, therefore, the commodity to be bought by Sylvia will have a high use-value because revenge –for Sylvia- is very useful.

To Sylvia’s phrase “Ah, you live an learn” Theo replies ironically: “You live” The use of irony here will lead the PSYCHOANALISTIC critic to the conclusion that it is a symptom of Theo’s blaming his mother for his dying, and the fact that he makes her see him through his last days is a punishment.

Sylvia reminds Theo how Bibi had given him a ‘cheap little nothing’ for his graduation and, on his side,  Theo comments on his giving as a wedding present to his roommate Nick a five-dollar garlic press which  reflected exactly how much he felt his friendship was worth at that moment. The MARXIST critic will note the use, once and again, of commodities to express feelings. The interesting part of the question it poses is how people get to permeate commodities with such abstract characteristics. The analysis of both MARXIST and PSYCHOANALISTIC criticism come to be very close regarding this matter. “According to Lacan, it was none other than Karl Marx who invented the notion of symptom” (Zizek, 312). There is no doubt a fundamental homology between the interpretative procedure of Marx and Freud.  As Slkavoj Zizek puts it in The Sublime Object of Ideology “we must accomplish the crucial step of conceiving the hidden “meaning” behind the commodity-form, the signification “expressed” by this form; we must penetrate the “secret” of the value of commodities” (313). Sylvia had been looking a long time for “something heavy enough to leave an impression, yet so fragile it could make you sorry” and she found it materialized in a bowl worth four hundred and twenty-five dollars. What mattered least was if it was beautiful or ugly, that was not the case. Both the MARXIST and the PSYCHOANALYTIC critics will hint the “Fetishism” (Marx, 271) attached to the bowl.  While the latter will explain it as a part of a process of exorcism, the former will realize that “there is a definite social relation between men that assumes, in their eyes, the fantastic form of a relation between things” (Marx, 271).  Hence the productions of the human brain appear as independent beings endowed with life and interacting in the world of commodities with the products of the men’s hands. And that Marx called “Fetishism”.

But it is not enough that Theo sees the bowl, he has to feel it – Sylvia suddenly argues -and unexpectedly tosses it to Theo like a football. She effects the sudden movement in the same manner twelve years before she had shoved her glasses onto his face. Her action obliges Theo to catch it and though it sinks his hands and makes his cane rattle in the floor, he succeeds in catching it. Our STRUCTURALIST critic is bound to find coherent that following the rules of the Oedipus myth, Sylvia, helping him not to go blind, is showing him with her action he can oppose gravity, that universal force. No need anymore for a cane that can be left, if even for a moment, rattling on the floor. That sole instant will prove the PSYCHONALYSTIC critic that unconscious forces can be defied; a person may defeat the psychic censorship if given the opportunity of “activating the repressed wishful impulse sending it into consciousness in a disguised and unrecognizable substitute”. (Baker).


A FEMINIST analysis of this last part of the story will notice how Sylvia is depicted through a number of characteristics that “phallocentric order” (Mulvey, 586) traditionally have awarded women with.  Sylvia “squeezed her eyes shut so tight the blue shadows on her lids cracked”; furthermore “on the surface things seemed right. She still broiled herself a skinned chicken breast for dinner every night, still swam a mile and a half a day, still kept used teabags wrapped in foil in the refrigerator”. Everything is right because Sylvia continues embarking herself in all the activities patriarchy has imposed women in order to give pleasure when looked at.  Laura Mulvey noted in “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema”: “In a world ordered by sexual imbalance, pleasure in looking has been split between active/male and passive/female” (589). A woman has, therefore, to be a passive image of visual perfection. It is basically what a MARXIST critic would call keeping the use-value of women and what one of  Lévi-Strauss’ theories would explain: “as the exchange of women is a fundamental principle of kinship, the subordination of women can be seen as a product of the relationships by which sex and gender are organized and produced” (qtd. in Rubin, 544).

The FORMALIST critic, on his end, would mark the use of the hyperbole for emphasis in “she squeezed her eyes shut so tight the blue shadow of her lids cracked” as well as the metaphor in “that gleam of flight and regret” when referring to the bowl which is so oblique it can only be wholly understood if referred back to “so fragile it could make you sorry” at the end of part [3].

Theo in a last and perfect state of clarividence understands that his mother was trusting “his two feeble hands, out of the whole world, to keep it from shattering. ‘What was she trying to test? Was it his newly regained vision? (.) that he hadn’t slipped past all her caring, a little lost boy in rhinestone-studded glasses?” A PSYCHOANALISTIC critic would argue that Leavitt has made his character act himself as a psychoanalist, wondering about both Sylvia and himself and there mutual close relationship, until he finally experiences an epiphanic instant which a FORMALIST critic would argue qualifies him as a dynamic character undergoing a radical change in his self-identification. The epiphany is in the closing of the story when Theo recalls the broad smile of his mother and he realizes that in that war, they were both engaged in, between heaviness and shattering, “he had helped her win some small but sustaining victory”. Our STRUCTURALIST critic would mark, once again, the use of foil but this time in an oblique and subverting way contrasting, as in the two sides of a war, heaviness and shattering when really one is but the consequence of the other. On his end the FORMALIST critic would claim that foils offer the writer interested in psychological or social realism a way of maintaining the illusion of reality while at the same time the crucial distinction between art and life is not lost, achieving as a result a much clearer situation in literature than what can be experienced in real life.

To conclude this multi-perspective literary criticism, we can turn to the FEMINIST criticism once more: Sylvia exercises the power the myths of sexism make available to her, and pushes Theo to oppose gravity, but that power is minimal because it only is the power of inducement. It is her son/male who really executes the action. The merit is his; Sylvia – the female- being just a tool, an object by which Theo- the dominant male- achieves victories. 

“Gravity”, as any other narrative, has as many readings as readers it may attract, and therefore, as many critical perspectives as existing theories can be drawn to discussion. In any case what cannot be denied is that it is a powerful and disturbing narrative that brings to surface many present questionings including such a delicate case as ‘AIDS’ which is only implied throughout the story but nonetheless very present.


Baker, Lyman A. “One of Freud’s Analogies for Explaining the Idea of Repression”

Critical Concepts. 30 April, 2000. Kansas State University. May 2, 2003. http://www.ksu.edu/english/baker/english251/cc-repression2.htm

Brooks, Cleanth. “The Language of Paradox” Rivkin and Ryan, 58-68.

Eichembaum, Boris. “Introduction to the Formal Method”  Rivkin and Ryan, 17-23.

Felluga, Dino. “Applications of Narratology”.  Introductory Guide to Critical Theory.

            April 22, 2003. Purdue University.  May 10, 2003


Freud, Sigmund. “The Uncanny” (1919). Rivkin and Ryan, 76-90.

Leavitt, David. “Gravity” (1990). The Oxford Book of American Short Stories. Oxford

            New York: Oxford University Press. 1994. 741-745.

Lévi-Strauss, Claude. “The Structural Study of Myth”  Rivkin and Ryan., 101-118.

Mulvey, Laura. “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema” Rivkin and Ryan, 585-595.

Rivkin, Julie, and Michael Ryan, eds. Literary Theory: An Anthology. Blackwell. 1998.

Sausurre, Ferdinand de. “Course in General Linguistics”  Rivkin and Ryan,  76-90.

Shklovsky, Victor. “Art as Technique”  Rivkin and Ryan, 17-23.

Zizek, Slavoj. ”The Sublime Object of Ideology”  Rivkin and Ryan, 312-325.


En el frío gris del leño

el mudo grito del árbol,

tiempo talado.

En el azul inacabable

los oblicuos cirros ardientes,

la discontinua unidad del tiempo.

En el sepia insondable de los siglos,

opacidades y transparencias,

letras y espacios en blanco,

ensamblaje de sombras

 y esplendores de un pasado inmenso;

interludio de arco iris y humo

licencias de vidas rotas

y tú,

ahora y siempre tú.

Implicitness in American Short Stories -(Oxford Collection, Joyce Carol Oates selection) by Myriam M. Mercader.


This work studies a selection of Joyce Carol Oates’ anthology The Oxford Book of American Short Stories. The aim is to analyse the grade of implicitness present in American short stories throughout the last three centuries. Grice’s Relevance Theory and Bonheim’s Narrative Modes and Techniques of the Short Story have been taken as framework for the research.

 The meaning of a piece of literature is more than often not an obvious matter. It may lie hidden entwined in the characters thoughts for the reader to detect or it may be just awareness on part of the reader at a certain moment in the story, many times at the very end. This study focuses on these hidden elements that affect intrinsic meaning, what linguists call “implicatures”.  

Implicitness in Short American Narrative


On analysing Joyce Carol Oates’ The Oxford Book of American Short Stories as the base for our study we encounter an outstanding selection of some of the best and paradoxically least known American short stories. It was indeed, the author’s intention to gather them in a collection, finding unfair that many such an interesting story should remain practically unknown to the general public. Joyce Carol Oates acknowledges having chosen the stories bearing in mind storytelling as an art as well as political or social themes rather than literary experimentation. This study will focus on the implicit ways these themes are conveyed.

 Part I of this work is a foreword on the elements considered important in the analysis of implicitness, in other words concepts relevant to our study such as implicature, explicature or narrative modes that have largely puzzled the erudite mind. Part II is entirely dedicated to the study of Implicitness under the umbrella of the distinct narrative modes and of the Relevance Theory. The Conclusion aims to outline the basic trend American short stories have followed since the eighteenth century concerning the grade of implicitness the writers pervade their literature by.

Part I – An approach to relevant terms

Much has been written on Relevance Theory, Implicatures, and Explicatures, but in general all linguists claim that there is a distinction between the explicit content and the implicit import of an utterance. Jim Meyer’s distinction in his article What is Literature? A Definition based on Prototypes is a relevant one to bear in mind:

In pragmatics there is an important distinction between ‘explicatures’ and ‘implicatures’ in understanding the meaning of a text. An explicature is the semantic representation which is present in the linguistic cues of an utterance; an implicature depends on the explicatures (the propositions which are expressed) together with the context.

Jim Meyer makes some interesting quotations from Diane Blakemore’s Understanding utterances:

Speakers do not always intend to communicate a specific set of assumptions: sometimes the speaker’s intentions are less determinate so the hearer is simply encouraged to think along certain lines without necessary coming to any specific conclusion (1992.168).

Every hearer (or reader) is guided and encouraged by the text in the sense that it gives access to contextual assumptions which yield implicatures…A creative hearer is encouraged to take a greater share of the responsibility in the interpretation process, so that the extra effort she invests is rewarded by a wide array of very weak implicatures, which she is encouraged to explore (1992:172).

It is these ‘weak implicatures’ that we intend to analyse as well as the way the writer may violate many of the maxims Grice’s Cooperative Principle suggests as unequivocal to communicate accurately under the four categories. Namely: under Quantity: be as informative as required, do not be more informative than required; under Quality: make your contribution one that is true, do not say what you believe to be false, do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence; under Relation: be relevant; under Manner: be perspicuous (avoid obscurity of expression, avoid ambiguity, be brief and be orderly). 

The violation of these maxims may give place to what Meyer called ‘weak meaning’ or ‘weak implicatures’, meanings which are present but which are less strongly present and that, sometimes, combined with several other weak meanings may provoke in the reader the poetic effect. Meyer also quotes Blakemore on the definition of the poetic effect “the effect of an utterance which achieves most of its relevance through a wide array of weak implicatures” (Blakemore 1992:157). For Meyer then, a prototypical literary work contains many weak implicatures, so that the readers are invited to think of many propositions which are only weakly present.

Two other terms that may deserve a previous word are those of ‘short story’ and ‘narrative modes’. And in a way the latter will help as a tool to understand the former.  It is very difficult to define ‘short story’ most of all when it is still in midst of its development. Ian Reid tell us in The Short Story that we have to start defining ‘story’ and only then continue with ‘short’, afterwards analyse its evolution from the tale and note the impulse Romanticism gave to the genre acknowledging :

..that the short story typically centres on an inward meaning of a crucial event, on sudden momentous intuitions, ‘epiphanies’ in James Joyce’s sense of that word; by virtue of its brevity and delicacy it can, for example, single out with special precision those occasions when an individual is most alert or most alone (1982:28).

Reid also points out in his fifth chapter the ‘essential qualities’ of a short story, namely: unity of impression, moment of crisis, and symmetry of design and, what is more, questions their essentiality. It is not our intention to go into depth on these matters, may they interest us as much as they do, but arrive to a close definition which we can bear in mind while carrying out our research. For this matter we find Joyce Carol Oates’ personal definition the most relevant, being hers the selection of stories we are to deepen in:

My personal definition of the form is that it represents a concentration of imagination, and not an expansion, it is no more than 10.000 words; and no matter its mysteries of experimental properties, it achieves a closure- meaning that, when it ends, the attentive reader understands why..[..]..Its resolution need not be a formally articulated statement…[..]..but it signals  a tangible change of some sort; a distinct shift in consciousness, a deepening of insight. (7) [1]

James Joyce, Ian Reid, Joyce Carol Oates, and many others, have realized that it was conflict and the reader’s awareness of it all, no matter if suddenly experienced in an “epiphanic” moment or through pages of swift consciousness, that generated a piece of literature and therefore a short story.

Helmut Bonheim through his analysis of The Techniques of the Short Story  arrived to the conclusion that some narrative modes have been more popular in one age than in another. Bonheim starts his first chapter saying that “Even the shortest of story forms, the anecdote, tends to use all of the chief modes of narrative” (1992:3) which he later defines as description, report, speech and comment. For Bonheim these four modes are “the staple diet of the short story and the novel” (1992:3). But not in all ages the hierarchy of modes has been the same:

“In our age speech stands high in the esteem of most readers. Description is thought boring except in small doses; comment of a particular kind, namely moralistic generalizing, is almost taboo, even where imbedded in speech; and even report is preferred in the dress of, or at least heavily interlarded with, speech.(1992:8)

Society’s tastes during a determined period will be reflected in its literature and the study of short stories will, no doubt, show us the same trend. For Bonheim a short story is:

“an amalgam, usually an unbalanced one, of the four modes : whereas Irving’s story consists of description and comment, these modes may be absent from stories written about a century later, such as Katherine Mansfield’s “Theft”, which contains the other two modes almost exclusively” (1992:14).

Part II – Implicitness in a Selection of the Short Stories in Joyce Carol Oates’ Anthology.

In our days general literature criticism believes that the writer should intrude as little as possible in the reader, what Joseph Warren Beach called “exit author thesis” in The Twentieth Century Novel, Studies in Technique (1932:14), but during the 18th and 19th  century this was not so. The fashion then indicated that the author could be very explicit in his comment and therefore the most popular modes were report and comment.

Following a chronological order in our selection, we first find Rip Van Winkle. Irving’s last sketch of his Sketch Book has hardly got any speech at all – except for the middle part of the story – but a lot of comment, description and report. Irving makes use of a series of pseudonyms which act twofold: as a twinkle to the faithful reader, who will remember his previous publicity campaign, and as a way to give his story authenticity. The story is supposed to have been first told by Rip Van Winkle himself, written by D. Knickerbocker as a true story and finally discovered by Geoffrey Crayon. This introduction may also recall Cervantes’ introduction to Don Quixote where he intends to assure accuracy. The interference of the writer is clear and very characteristic of the time. The story itself starts with a long description of the Kaatskill Mountains and with the author addressing directly the reader: “Whoever has made a voyage up the Hudson, must remember the Kaatskill mountains. They are a dismembered branch (……) At the foot of these mountains, the voyager may have descried the light smoke curling up from a village” (18). What further characterises the opening of this story is that the description will not really be relevant to the plot, what would be considered out of place in a modern story. Irving continues his story with a report of Rip’s character and his falling asleep to wake up twenty years later. It is only when he wakes up that the author’s intentions come to surface. Towards the middle of the story, here also helped with speech, Irving reveals that Rip has awakened being part of a Republic and not a subject of the King of England. In his quest for identity, Rip symbolises America’s own quest; his divorce from the past may well be America’s denial of her British past. There are very ‘explicit’ symbols like the sign on the tavern which had been disguised as George Washington, but could still be identified by Rip as “the ruby face of King George, under which he had smoked so many a peaceful pipe” (27) The story ends with one of its many samples of humour and irony: “it is a common wish of all henpecked husband [..] that they might have a quieting draught out of Rip Van Winkle’s flagon”.(32)

William Austin, in his Peter Rugg, The Missing Man, makes use of a similar strategy to put forward his tale as a letter form Jonathan Dunwell of New York to Mr. Herman Krauff and to reassure, therefore, its authenticity. Austin, nevertheless, alternates report with speech and comment making his story much more ‘modern’, although it has also got a lot of explicit symbolism. This old yarn had been long told as a nursery tale and later was forgotten for a long time. Austin like Irving at the end of the story includes a “Further Account of Peter Rugg by Jonathan Dunwell” advocating for its veracity.  Here we find out that after having been running for years to find his home, without being successful because he had defied Nature with his cursing, he arrives to find his house burned and its land auctioned. The story is a parable and as Irving’s has also to do with Time. The Further Account finishes with an “explicit” explanation:

Then spake a voice from the crowd, but whence it came I could not discern. “There is nothing strange here but yourself, Mr. Rugg. Time, which destroys and renews all things, has dilapidated your house, and placed us here. […]..Your home is gone, and you can never have another home in this world.” (61)

Both Irving’s and Austin’s tales are about a subject that has always fascinated men: Time, though the way they make use of it may differ in intention and in form.

The Wives of the Dead follows the same line, starting Hawthorne the story addressing the reader “The following story, the simple and domestic incidents of which may be deemed scarcely worth relating..”(63) It directly starts informing the reader of an incident that though it may seem insignificant it had aroused interest and for some reason or other, and one immediately hopes for the best.  The comment and report on the part of the author will continue all through the story embedded even in descriptions of the sort: “Her sister-in-law was of a lively and irritable temperament, and the first pangs of her sorrow had been expressed by shrieks and passionate lamentation.” (64) The descriptions will leave little to the imagination of the reader and almost no implicit elements will be found throughout the story. On the other hand, it has, as almost all Hawthorne’s stories, a lot of moral content, especially concerning the well-natured sisters-in-law who, believing each to be the only one to have her husband alive, behave so unselfishly as to delay telling the other in order not to make her suffer.  The author is always very present even revealing the thoughts of the characters in the form of direct monologue “My poor sister¡ you will waken too soon from that happy dream,” thought Mary”.(68) What strikes, for the first time in the story to the 21st century reader is the last paragraph which leaves the final outcome open, “Before retiring, she set down the lamp and endeavoured to arrange the bed-clothes, so that the chill air might no do harm to the feverish slumberer. But her hand trembled against Margaret’s neck, a tear also fell upon her cheek, and she suddenly awoke.”(68) This paragraph also supplies an example of “implicature” with this tear that also fell, telling us that in her anxiety the young wife had also wept. We are left to imagine the following development of the scene leading towards the final discovering on the part of both sisters-in-law that the other knew of their husbands being still alive, or, as a more suspicious reader may suspect,  one of two informers could not have told the truth and the story could lead elsewhere had it been written. A final word can be said on the last “she awoke”. Could it not have been Margaret, but Mary? She might as well have been dreaming.

            If we turn to Herman Melville and his The Paradise of Bachelors and the Tartarus of Maids, we encounter a prose that sounds much more familiar to the modern reader. To start with the story breaks out with an initial “It” that the reader will not fully understand until the end of the second long paragraph, thus violating one of Grice’s maxims, and making the reader keep on with curiosity: “It lies not far from Temple Bar. Going to it, by the usual way, is…” (70) The reader will also be intrigued about this ‘usual way’ which he is supposed to recognise. The technique was not very much extended in Melville’s time and it violates Grice’s Cooperative Principle maxim “Be perspicuous” The story is full of implicit meaning. It was the beginning of industrialization which, as it stood, was against the incipient democratic principles and Melville denounces it in the story. The two parts of the story represent the two worlds: the wealthy capitalist class that produced nothing and just lived an empty life “of quiet absorption of good living, good drinking, good feeling and good talk” (76) – a men’s world and heaven – embodied by the Bachelors- and the other, the maid’s world and hell which incarnate wooing maids, young girls chained to a machine that dehumanize them and make them as white as the paper they manufacture. With this paper the lawyers will earn their money, bachelors will abuse maids, capitalist will control workers. The way the story is narrated, almost as if it were two different stories, is revolutionary for the time and indicates the gap between the two social classes. It may even indicate a feminist defence on the part of the writer “The girls,” echoed I glancing round at their silent forms. “Why is it, Sir, that in most factories, female operatives, of whatever age, are indiscriminately called girls, never women?”(89) For the bachelor that governs them women must be like “mares haltered to the racks” and not allowed to have children or husbands that would only disturb them. Their forms are silent, unable to fulfil their natural development. The guide lad, Cupid, relates it all to the visitor, as if it were joke on the part of the writer on the interrelation man/woman. The final exclamation: “Oh¡ Paradise of Bachelors and Oh¡ Tartarus of Maids” (90) unites both worlds in the character’s mind giving them their real importance, realizing that the paradise he earlier praised was on account of the hell of so many. It is what modern criticism would call an ‘epiphanic’ moment.

Edgar Allan Poe’s mad character in the Tell-Tale Heart begins addressing in the first person the reader as if in a conventional chat: “True¡ nervous, very, very dreadfully nervous I had been and am; (….) You fancy me mad. Madmen know nothing. But you should have seen me.” He will continue trying to convince the reader he is not mad and by the mere fact of doing so and telling how he killed the poor old fellow, because he could not get rid of the look of “his Evil Eye”, he convinces the reader of the contrary.  Poe creates the ambiance and masterly leads the reader to the final outburst of madness by means of a continued insight of the character’s mind. The mind of a man or a woman, we do not know because Poe uses “I” or “me” that is driven mad by the fear of the power of an evil eye which he finally cannot escape.

The Storm is a master piece by Kate Chopin which leaves little for the reader to imagine. It is one of the most explicit stories of marital deceit with a happy ending in the story of American literature and, what is more, with no sense of treachery on the part of the actors. “The generous abundance of her passion, without guile or trickery, was like a white flame which penetrated and found response in depths of his own sensuous nature that had never yet been reached”.(133) The writer goes a bit further stating that it was her flame that penetrated him and taught him what he still did not know. In a time, when women had to be aloof from all sexual desire, not to say of the actual knowledge of sex, The Storm could not have been but ignored by all publishers as it actually was. The metaphor of the storm depicts Calixta’s passion which when put off leaves her feeling even a better wife.  Both couples are explicitly told to be at ease at the end of the story: “So the storm passed and every one was happy.”

The Yellow Paper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman may be considered the opposite of The Storm if we discuss implicitness. There is so much implicit that still nowadays the story is being analysed and interpreted on different levels, namely psychological, sociological or feminist. There is a lot to be interpreted. Only some examples are cited below. From the very beginning, the narrator names herself only with pronouns: myself, me, one, I.   This has been interpreted by many authors as a way to disguise her identity under a veil of anonymity which could include many other women in the same condition. When the narrator uses her name, it is only at the end of the story and in the third person when she has become the other woman, the one which has escaped from the yellow paper and is addressing the husband. “I’ve got out at last,” said I, “ in spite of you and Jane.(169)  She is no longer Jane, she is “I”. The yellow paper symbolises the oppressive situation many women lived in at a time, when post-partum depression was considered an mental illness and women were prescribed isolation and immobility by male doctors, which many times drove them to real madness. Gilman depicts how a woman can finally get beyond the yellow paper defying men’s power. ”And I’ve pulled off most of the paper, so you can’t put me back¡” Now why should that man have fainted? But he did, and right across my path by the wall, so that I had to creep over him every time¡”(169) In the ending to the story it is the liberated woman that speaks, even if she is on her hands and knees, she keeps creeping over the fainted man.  Her husband faints because he cannot stand her half disobedience, or because he cannot consciously accept not having full power. The reader must make his own conclusions.

The Middle Years by Henry James is the story of an artist, a writer who achieves high quality art when he is about to die and cannot accept not having a further chance to continue with it now that it was finally in his possession. “The art had come, but it had come after everything else. At such a rate a first existence was too short-long enough only to collect material; so that to fructify, to use the material, one should have a second age, an extension. This extension was what poor Dencombe sighed for.” (174) James’ personal realism, which depicted his character’s inner experiences not merely life as seen in a mirror, works here very well. The writer by means of the character’s inner thoughts will keep us informed of almost everything. There is little implicit but we are taken by the hand of the author from beginning to end. Dencombe laments his almost lost life very early in the story foreshadowing the last sentences  ”Frustration’s only life,” said Doctor Hugh. “Yes, it’s what passes.” Poor Dencombe was barely audible, but he had marked with the words the virtual end of his first and only chance.” (189) This mixture of speech and comment on the part of the writer will close an ending which otherwise would have remained a little more open and nearer to 21st century taste.

Even more explicit is Jack London’s In a Far Country where the author in his celebrated two first paragraphs gives the reader a lesson of good behaviour when leaving the well-known domestic world to venture into the unknown natural world “For the courtesies of ordinary life, he must substitute unselfishness, forbearance, and tolerance.” Making use of report and comment Jack London will lead the reader till the end of the story where both characters kill each other after incurring in almost every capital sin. There is very little speech, just some thought in the third person narrator:

Well he would have company. If Gabriel ever broke the silence of the North, they would stand together, hand in hand, before the great White Throne. And God would judge them, God would judge them¡

Then Percy Cuthfert closed his eyes and dropped off to sleep.(205)

Old Woman Magoun by Mary E. Wilkins (Freeman) has relatively more speech than report or comment. It is a cry in favour of women and mostly coloured women. “The weakness of the masculine element in Barry’s Ford was laid low before such strenuous feminine assertion” (207)  The reader of the story – if not familiar with the author’s tales – will not know but for the language used by Old Woman Magoun that she is a coloured woman. Neither is he told that Lily is the daughter of a black woman and a white man. It is nevertheless implicit  “She’s got a good color” said Sally Jinks…(…)…”I know she’s got a beautiful color,” replied Old Woman Magoun, with an odd mixture of pride and anxiety, “but it comes an’goes.” (210) The beautiful colour and the mixture of pride and anxiety implies all the horror that lies under the life of a mulatto girl (though we are made aware of her blondness) whose grandmother knows better than let her grow up because she foresees an unlucky destiny in the hands of a loathsome white father. The episode of the berries which on the way to Greenham Lily is forbidden to eat foreshadows the final outcome as, later on, on the way back after having been denied the adoption which could have been the only salvation, the girl is almost induced to eat, though in a silent manner.  The author does not explicitly tell us what is in Old Woman Magoun’s mind, but she leaves it very clear with the single sentence “Come” she said, “it is time we were going. I guess you have set long enough.” (221) The girl has had enough poisonous berries and she will be freed from her terrible destiny of being given away as payment for gambling debts.

While getting closer to our time in our chronological journey through the anthology, we begin to encounter more and more implicit literature, less comment, more speech, and increasingly more ordinary characters who, notwithstanding, will in their quest for identity experience what any human being is deemed to experience: conflict and a moment of illuminating awareness. Often these characters will feel that life is an endless abyss of nothingness. On this line Ernest Hemmingway’s   A Clear Well-Lighted Place is one of the best examples of economy of words and comment but of profound enlightening on the eternal dichotomy between the young and fearless man and the more mature and sadly knowledgeable man who has finally realized there is “nada : pues nada” (299) to pray for. Hemmingway uses only two short paragraphs, the first – a description – and a middle one, in the form of interior monologue, to give the reader some explicit clues on the characters’ thoughts. The rest – mostly speech – serves to depict masterly the two worlds.

In The Strength of God, Sherwood Anderson’s Presbyterian minister also experiences this moment of sudden awareness that functions as a high-pressure valve through which all the repressed sexuality will give way to the appearance of God in the form of a naked school-teacher kneeling on a bed. Basically the story contains report and comment and the repressed thoughts of the only character. It is not until the end of the story that he addresses a second character, George Williard, to tell him how God gave him the strength to smash the window through which he spied the woman. But this second character will not utter a single word in response:

“I have found the light” he cried. “After ten years in this town, God has manifested himself to me in the body of a woman.”…..(….)..I am delivered. Have no fear…(…) “I smashed the glass of the window,” he cried. “Now it will have to be wholly replaced. The strength of God was in me and I broke it with my fist”. (263)

F. Scott Fitzgerald mastered another character-maybe because he had had the same suffering- who felt lost in the abyss of a wasted life. An Alcoholic Case shows two characters that though sympathising one with the other are jointly incapable of beating death. Death appears in a corner of the room, and both the nurse and her ‘case’ feel it.  ‘..she knew that death was in that corner where he was looking’.(309) Discouraged the nurse will explain, the day after, to her boss ‘It’s not like anything you can beat’ …(…)..it’s so discouraging –it’s all for nothing”.(309) Once again there is ‘nothing and then nothing’. With the use of ‘it’ and ‘anything’, of undetermined intrinsic meaning, the author implies that which the nurse is not able to put into words but the reader will perfectly grasp, thus violating all of Grice’s Cooperative Principle maxims.

William Faulkner, the most original writer of his day, almost re-invented fiction. He’s marvellous technique enhanced him to talk in the voices of every kind of character. In That Evening Sun the eternal tragedy of black people in the States is shown indirectly through the voices of the children of a white American family (its member will appear again in The Sound and the Fury published later). Through the incoherent chattering of the smaller children and a couple of assertions on the part of the father and Quentin, his nine-year-old daughter and first person narrator of the story, we learn the details of a frequent case of abuse to black women by white powerful men. Jesus, the black woman’s husband takes revenge in the person least guilty but most accessible: Nancy, his wife. “I just a nigger. It aint no fault of mine”.(350) Nancy’s moaning has all the tragedy implicit. She is not to blame but just accept her fate. After leaving Nancy alone in her cabin waiting for her destiny, Quentin’s question clears the reader’s doubts: “Who will do our washing now, Father?” I said. The matter is already settled and now the family has to look forward to their immediate needs, even a nine-year-old is aware of it. Faulkner mastered the economy of words and this “who?” is not questioning but really answering.

Richard Wright, less innovating but as reaching, depicts in The Man who was almost a Man another tragedy another black abuse. The reader together with the character, a fifteen-year-old black boy, will realize simultaneously at the time of hearing the sound of a train approaching, that the boy had been cheated into a-two-year slavery: “Two dollars a mont. Les see now…Tha means it’ll take bout two years. Shucks¡ Ah’ll be dam¡” (383) The reader is left running away with the boy after catching a train “away to somewhere, somewhere where he could be a man”.(383)  Here, once more in literature, an indefinite pronoun stands for the staple of modern society.

It is no coincidence that the first chapter of another memorable book starts: “It goes a long way back, some twenty years. All my life. I had been looking for something, and everywhere I turned someone tried to tell me what it was.”(441)  This is how Battle Royal, the first chapter of Ralph Ellison`s Invisible Man, begins. Here we encounter another black writer, but essentially the same character running after his identity and after success. Ellison’s character, does not have a name, he embodies all negro boys. The story is written in the first person singular and the reader does not have a clear picture of the narrator but the events narrated foreshadow what fate he will suffer. The anecdote of his grandfather will also serve as a device showing the boy the way to follow “Grandfather had been a quiet old man who never made any trouble, yet on his deathbed he had called himself a traitor and a spy, and he had spoken of his meekness as a dangerous activity” (442) The remembrance will haunt him all his life and it is explicit at the end of the chapter in the form of a dream where his grandfather writes “Keep This Nigger-Boy Running”.(445) He acknowledges not having at the time an “insight into its meaning”. So the chapter starts as it finishes with a search for identity and this endless running after self-assurance.

Human eternal quest seems to have a tragic ending in Ray Bradbury’s Three Will Come Soft Rains. It is a terrible future of nuclear war that mankind should avoid. There are many interesting features in the story as personification to describe the house’s actions,  that continues to function as if nothing had happened.  The house is afraid, though, and that fright is reasonable because the family is gone though “their images burnt in wood in one titanic instant” (458) can yet been seen.  The writer does not inform the reader immediately of the facts but goes little by little drawing the picture. The title of the story, the poem chosen by the house to be said  –not precisely at random – parallels the story up to the final outcome: “And no one will know of the war, not one will care at last when it is done. No one would mind, neither bird nor tree. If mankind perished utterly” (460) It is precisely the falling of a tree that will cause the final disappearance of the house under the fire. Then  everything collapses and leaves us one last voice “Today is August 5, 2026, today is…”(462) and hoping it would not be premonitory.

For the last part of the anthology Joyce Carol Oates selected several stories by contemporary writers, many of which belong to ethnic or social minorities, that have progressively had more and more echo in society and whose vindications are conveyed in their literature masterly and growingly elliptically.

Leslie Marmon Silko is one of them and Yellow Woman one of her best stories. As many of her contemporary writers, she does not openly speak in her literature but her message is implicit in depths in her stories. Hers is the voice of many Native Americans and it brings up issues of personal identity, cultural identity, and genre identity. The story is told in the first person singular and the narrator loosens herself to gradually believe she is Yellow Woman, part of myth and tradition and therefore free to live her sensuality without guilty feelings. But there is much more to the story if closely studied. With the frequent mention of dampness, heat, warmth in connection with the narrator’s senses, the author is linking  Mother Creator with her siblings. “My thigh clung to his with dampness…[…]…I cleaned the sand out of the cracks between my toes…[…]…I felt hungry…” (592) The land and the woman are all one, the narrator begins to feel part of tradition too, she wonders “if Yellow Woman had known who she was…[…]..Maybe she had another name. (493)  Later Silva will tell her “  But some day they will talk about us, and they will say “Those two lived long ago when things like that happened.” (595)

“Stella, cold, cold, the coldness of hell” This is the beginning of Cynthia Ozick’s story The Shawl. This seven words foreshadow the hell to be lived by the main character, Rosa , as well as depicts the character of Stella, her condition of being terrible cold and the ultimate reason of Rosa’s child death.  The title of the story the ‘shawl’ also functions as a symbol: it will first serve to hide Magda – Rosa’s baby – from the Nazis and later stop her from screaming when she actually watches the child die. In the story we first encounter coldness, naked, harsh words but gradually the author will impregnate them with a poetic scent “All at once Magda was swimming through the air. The whole of Magda travelled through loftiness.” (605) The words describe the instant previous to the child’s death against an electrified fence in a Nazi concentration camp. How else could it be beared?

David Leavitt’s Gravity has lots implicit in the title too. Gravity is what has to be beaten to prove human consistency. There is no direct reference to AIDS in the story nor to HIV+ but it is very well implied as for example in the incident of the two salesmen who refuse to shake Theo’s hand.  The title is echoed in “It seemed Sylvia had been looking a long time for something like this, something heavy enough to leave an impression, yet so fragile it could make you sorry.”  The  impression would be left, not only in Bibi but also in Theo who will realize that – no matter what – he could still mark a difference, impose his being and by doing so help both his mother and himself to “win some small but sustaining victory” (745).

Today’s writer has no other choice than to provoke with literature sudden revealing moments, epiphanies, ‘titanic instants’ because today’s conflicts are otherwise unspeakable; perspicuousness too flat. 

Perspicuous writing is also too limited for Sandra Cisneros. Her stories, almost poems, are like photographed instants, exquisite life portraits that elliptically tell us about Latino community in North America and its terrible circumstances. A house of My Own for example, consists of only two paragraphs, one of them only a sentence “Only a house quiet as snow, a space for myself to go, clean as paper before the poem”. (749) and yet encompassing so many “weak implicatures”.

Finally, a word on Heat: our author’s own contribution to her anthology. Oates expresses in the foreword to the story that “For the author, the formal challenge of Heat was to present a narrative in a seemingly acausal manner, analogous to the playing of a piano sans pedal, as if each paragraph, or chord, were separate from the rest” (607). She thoroughly accomplishes the challenge. As  J. Alan Rice noted in his detailed study Chord Structure in Joyce Carol Oates’ “Heat” (1995), Oates “means that the narrative has been pared down to its essentials”. Her intention being to diminish it gradually until it is understood as unique notes “without sustaining notes from one chord to another” asserts Rice. “But the most important aspect of the structure of “Heat” is that the final chord, that which the story is about, is missing.” Once again how could something as despairing as the raping and murder of two girls else be told?


The success of a piece of literature is parallel to its success in reaching each and every reader.  The best way to do it will depend on the artist’s expertise and sensibility. There are no predetermined rules and the history of literature endorses it, but, many times, to convey meaning on part of the writer or to apprehend it on part of the reader is no easy task; it implies alertness on both sides.    In Joyce Carol Oates’ own words: “Because the meaning of the story does not lie on its surface, visible and self-defining, does not mean that meaning does not exist. Indeed, the ambiguity of meaning, its inner, private quality, may well be part of the writer’s vision.” (8)

From the 18th century up to our days storytelling has experienced notable changes. Far back in time have the parables with moralistic comment been discarded. Detailed description and lengthy report have also suffered a continuous metamorphosis evolving to more and more succinct speech, at times only images, the meaning of which the reader is merely invited to seize.

Notwithstanding this evolution, nothing is definite. Storytelling is a long winding road; a multi-dimensional road along which Society can trek, develop, progress and be substantially represented while led in its eternal quest for identity.

Works Cited

Beach, Joseph Warren. The Twentieth Century Novel: Studies in Technique. New York. The Century Co., 1932.

Blakemore, Diane. Understanding utterances. Oxford: Blackwell. 1992.

Bonheim, Helmut. The Narrative Modes: Techniques of the Short Stories. Cambridge.D.S. Brewer. 1992

Grice, H.P. Pragmatics: A reader. Oxford University Press. 1991.

Meyer, Jim. What is Literature? A Definition Based on Prototypes. Work Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics. University of North Dakota. 41: [33-42].1997.

Oates, Joyce Carol. The Oxford Book of American Short Stories. Oxford & New York : Oxford University Press. 1994.

Reid, Ian. The Short Story. Methuen & Co. Ltd. New York. 1982.

Rice, J. Alan. Chord Structure in Joyce Carol Oates’ “Heat”. Copyright 1995. http://www.levity.com/corduroy/oateshea.htm (20/02/2002)

Myriam Mercader

[1] All pages without any special indication correspond to Joyce Carol Oates’s The Oxford Book of American Short Stories.

Hotel Dada / N° 14 / Revista de Arte Correo y Poesia Visual

Dirige: Silvio De Gracia Julio de 2019

Magazine : 40 pag. , + DVD /

Sent from Argentina : October 18 2019
Received : November 04 2019
Cover : Julien Blaine : Rep. éléphant 306 , 1962
Photo : Henry Ely /
Inculding : Enzo Minarelli , John M. Bennett , Julien Blaine , Akenaton : Philippe Castellin et
Jean Torregrosa , Bartolomé Ferrando , Clemente Padin , Giovanni Fontana , Hugo Ball , Bernard Heidsieck , Fernando Aguiar , Chiara Mulas , Anna Banana , Bill Picasso Gaglione , J.M. Calleja , Szkarosi Endre , …
T.A.C. 42.292 Guy Bleus Archives :
Silvio De Gracia / Hotel Dada Magazine /
Argentina : # 000 013 




Productos paraeditoriales o ediciones periódicas
Productos extraeditoriales o impresos editoriales heterogéneos.

Portada, Heterogénesis. Revista de Artes Visuales, Año XII – Octubre 2003

Por Tulio Restrepo Echeverri e-mail: tulio.restrepo@une.net.co

El presente artículo es continuación de la edición Número 118 – Agosto 2009, http://revista.escaner.cl/node/1454, dedicado a los Productos Gráficos: Medios Impresos y Electrónicos en Arte por Correspondencia. Reseñaremos ejemplos adicionales enviados a Postdata, clasificados como Productos paraeditoriales o ediciones periódicas y Productos extraeditoriales o Impresos editoriales heterogéneos; que promueven la utilización alternativa de formatos, procesos de producción gráfica y tecnologías en la comunicación de arte por correspondencia.

Productos paraeditoriales o ediciones periódicas

Heterogénesis,[1] Revista de Artes Visuales, es una edición cultural periódica, miembro del Seminario Latinoamericano del Departamento de Filosofía e Historia de las Ideas, Universidad de Lund, Suecia; dedicada en el ejemplar del Año XII – Nr 45 – Octubre de 2003, a la temática del Mail Art y encomendada a Elías Adasme, Networker y artista Chileno residenciado en Puerto Rico quién trabajó como director invitado, incluyendo artículos sobre Poesía Visual, Xerografía, Performance, Critica de Arte y Arte Correo, entre los cuales mencionamos los siguientes: Arte Correo en Latinoamérica: una apuesta por la utopía (Elías Adasme), Funtastic United Nations: Por una creativa desglobalización de las culturas (Vittore Baroni), De la alquimia del verbo a la estructura como crítica y metalenguaje (Jorge Solís Arenazas), Conversación en red entre 2G´s (Gianni Simone y Guido Vermeulen), El Arte Correo en el marco de la globalización (Clemente Padin), La globalización de la utopia (Silvio de Gracia c/o Hotel DaDA), Arte postal y la poesía experimental (Klaus Groh), Arte Postal – Células Cerebrales – Fractal (Ryosuke Cohen), Xerografía: un recurso del arte postal en tiempo de globalización (Hugo Pontes), Poesía Visual o el juego de las definiciones (César Reglero) y Arte correo y poesía visual en México: una práctica todavía corrosiva (César Espinosa).

Referiremos apartes de este último artículo, por: “César Horacio Espinosa Vera, Mexicano, escritor, docente, poeta visual. Creó y ha sido coorganizador de las Bienales Internacionales de Poesía Visual y Experimental (1985-2009). Autor de libros y ensayos sobre poesía, arte, política cultural y comunicación, uno de ellos en coautoría con Araceli Zúñiga -La Perra Brava. Arte, y crisis políticas culturales, del cual una selección de textos aparece en Ediciones Especiales, Escáner Cultural.”[2]

Espinosa Vera, plantea una cronología de las prácticas artísticas culturales que desde los años 70 y hasta mediados de los años ochenta del siglo XX, se manifiestan como dos tendencias que aún hoy, permanecen según sus palabras, […] “en estado subrepticio, disidente, clandestino, a pesar de que cuentan con hondas raíces históricas y en su desarrollo atravesó por todas las “vanguardias clásicas” en el mundo: el arte-correo y la poesía visual”,[3] como propuestas de comunicación paralela a la producción artística reconocida por el circuito de críticos-galerías-instituciones en México y extensivamente en Latinoamérica.

[…] “En torno al primero, entre otras numerosas definiciones existentes, cabe apuntar: Sería el arte-correo el que acabaría con el privilegio desmitificador del “aura” del original al reproducir masivamente, al sustraer el arte de la crítica, al demoler las contradicciones, al democratizar la creación, al desregionalizarse como tránsito libre por el mundo, al conciliar códigos, símbolos, grafismos, al crear interferencias visuales hasta la saturación, al preparar la irreverencia paradiscursiva de los “Paralamas del acontecimiento”. [4]

[…] “Desde sus inicios el arte-correo ofrecía los siguientes atributos, aún vigentes en lo básico:

I. Se trata de un diálogo a larga distancia, entre personas que probablemente nunca llegarán a conocerse ni a intercambiar palabras a viva voz. Esto rompe los parroquialismos, la estrechez de miras, permite conocer otra circunstancia y otra problemática. Nutre la comprensión y la solidaridad.

II. Correlativamente, se trata de un diálogo político, ideológico, por la propia naturaleza del sistema. En cuanto sistema de comunicación se interesa más por los problemas vivenciales y las circunstancias de actualidad que por preocupaciones eminentemente formales y estilísticas. Si bien posibilita desfogues escapistas, siempre significa una práctica ajena a los códigos académicos o del mercado, lo cual favorece las capacidades de autoexpresión como uno de los de los potenciales más productivos y corrosivos del circuito. Esta característica resultó de especial importancia para enfrentarse a regímenes dictatoriales, como los vividos en Latinoamérica, o sistemas cerrados como los del “socialismo real”.

III. Origina un proceso de descentralización artística, cuando desde cada aldea o provincia se pueden enviar mensajes creativos y ser conocidos o transmitidos hacia una multiplicidad de lugares, en contraposición a los “centros” rectores del arte implantados desde la segunda posguerra, donde una trama de galerías, museos, críticos y marchands controla un cerrado aparato de mercadeo y “prestigio” que se enseñorea sobre el arte universal. Con el arte postal deja de haber “marginados” en la expresión y muestreo artísticos. Esto se potencia ahora en los tiempos de Internet y el correo-electrónico”.[5]

Periódico. Festival de la Interferencia, In Memoriam “Edgardo Antonio Vigo”

La publicación en formato Periódico que lleva por título, Festival de la Interferencia, [6] Impreso por In situ Press, Estación de Diseño y Producción Gráfica, reporta el encuentro Internacional de Arte de Acción, realizado en las ciudades de Junín, Pergamino y Rosario del 25 al 29 de Abril de 2007, organizado por Silvio De Gracia, In Memoriam “Edgardo Antonio Vigo”; xilógrafo, pionero del Arte Correo argentino, artista conceptual, del performance, poeta experimental, constructor de objetos, entre otros. Esta edición realizada bajo el concepto editorial de impresión por demanda, es decir, de tiraje limitado, como opción a las dinámicas comerciales del periódico tradicional, órgano informativo cultural citadino que despliega noticias de interés general.

El documento detalla el oficio curatorial de De Gracia, incluyendo participantes que ejercen a la vez como artistas de acción y corresponsales eventuales practicando indirectamente labores relativas al oficio del periodismo, utilizando los géneros periodísticos o formas literarias de manera informativa, de opinión e interpretativa; con artículos como: La estética de la Perturbación (Silvio De Gracia), Los tejidos de la Performace (Richard Martel), fragmentos de textos históricos de E.A. Vigo, de 1971, publicado originalmente en la revista Hexágono’71, La Plata 1972, denominado, “La Calle: Escenario del Arte Actual” y el titulado: “Un Arte Contradictorio” (Declaración de 1968-69), adicionalmente, “La performance desde la perspectiva Latinoamérica” por Clemente Padin.

Respecto al género periodístico literario que corresponde a los editoriales y artículos de opinión, citaremos apartes del editorial introductorio del periódico en cuestión y, por otro lado, un extracto de la correspondencia electrónica con el autor del presente ensayo que expone entre otras cosas los marcados intereses de, De Gracia, por la estética de la perturbación o la interferencia, directrices a partir de las cuales concibe, escribe y promociona sus eventos:

[…] “Pensemos que la interferencia es una suerte de revulsión. Una revulsión que se produce en el artista y que se exterioriza para buscar un interlocutor que, al menos de manera fugaz, tome el riesgo de abstraerse del disciplinamiento social que se ha instituido en la cotidianidad. Sacudir la inercia de la trivialización de los comportamientos humanos es el objetivo. Pero esto no es para transformar la realidad, sino tan sólo para crearle fisuras, abrirle intersticios, y “parasitarle” su tejido racional y restrictivo. ¿Qué mejor forma de lograr esto que a partir de la perturbación que se opera por las más diversas vías y estrategias: la irreverencia, la ironía, la intromisión, la agresión, la apuesta lúdica, el extrañamiento, la sorpresa, el delirio, el absurdo y toda forma posible de arte insurreccional.”[7]

[…] “Te comento rápidamente que el eje curatorial son las acciones urbanas (intervenciones, performances, interferencias) que ejerzan algún tipo de efecto perturbador sobre la cotidianidad… He apuntado a acciones que juegan en los bordes entre la documentación y la videoperformance… pero en todos los casos se trata de obras que han sido pensadas y desarrolladas en el espacio público con una intencionalidad desestabilizadora…”[8] 

Por otro lado y desde el contexto del producto paraeditorial lo anterior connota un particular uso de este tipo de publicación alternativa, no sujeta al acotamiento y en casos peores a la censura total del comité editorial de turno de los medios tradicionales del periodismo local o regional, aún el cultural, delimitado por las tendencias y políticas interinas, que se yuxtaponen en este caso a un ejercicio periodístico alternativo, creando “interferencias” al posibilitar de manera directa el análisis y el ejercicio de libre opinión contribuyendo por otra parte a establecer parámetros críticos por fuera de los intereses de la crítica de oficio, sujeta y manipulada a su vez por los intereses económicos del oficialismo del arte transnacional.

Productos extraeditoriales o impresos editoriales heterogéneos.

Según Tena Parera, están conformados por un extenso grupo heredados del libro y de los impresos editoriales periódicos; divididos a su vez por subgrupos según su uso social en impresos eventuales, de presentación e identificación, de correspondencia, administración, para el envase, embalaje y expedición, de información comercial e industrial, papeles de valor, de fantasía, publigrafía y cartografía.

El Catálogo, es un impreso de información comercial e industrial, en forma de folleto, listando referencias, valores y descripciones sintetizadas de productos y servicios. En arte, un catálogo se diseña de manera similar pero el objetivo principal es el de promocionar obras plásticas o audiovisuales, con un marcado acento en el diseño gráfico experimental, lo fotográfico como registro de obra, una reseña crítica presentando el artista o colectivo y la imagen de identidad institucional quién a manera de patrocinador presenta de forma temporal o permanente una exposición, un evento, un proyecto, un certamen, etc.

En Arte Postal, generalmente un catálogo se compone de una presentación introductoria institucional, una reseña critica o teoría sobre arte postal autorreferencial, de un directorio de artistas clasificados por países y participantes, incluyendo la dirección postal, la dirección electrónica y una selección de obras postales; utilizando diversos medios y formatos para su publicación como el Offset, la xerografía, el afiche o póster, la hoja carta, el acetato, la postal, el sobre-catalogo y la multimedia como documentación del evento.

Ambassadors of the Artists Republic, International Mail Art, Exhibitions & Conferences,[9] es el título del catálogo enviado por el artista postal francés, Rémy Penard, documentando el acto protocolario de la fundación de “La República de Artistas”, tema de convocatoria que sustentó además las exposiciones itinerantes de Arte Postal, video conferencias y el taller sobre Sellos de Artista realizados en bibliotecas y centros culturales, en la que se solicitó a los artistas postales que manifestarán en sus mensajes que entendían por el concepto de “República de Artistas”. La siguiente nota de prensa incluida en el catálogo da cuenta del acta de conformación redactada por sus autores.

“En noviembre de 1999, tres artistas de la región de Limoges, Francia, el escultor Pierre Digan, el pintor Eugéne Chabreuil y el Artista Postal Remy Pénard, se encuentran en un restaurante en el sitio denominado como “El Campo de las Esculturas” (Le Pre aux Sculptures) en el Lavergne cerca a St.-Martin-Chateau en el departamento de Creuse y decidieron fundar una “República de Artistas” en ese lugar y puntualmente se proclamaron sus embajadores. Los fundadores de esta autodenominada “república” se amueblaron con los mismos medios para comunicarse que el mundo del Mail Art, por correo, fax, e-mails y la red de manera tal que contactaron mas de 1200 artistas de 54 países para fomentar los intercambios con artistas internacionales en este terreno, Creuse, situado en el centro de los intercambios de Francia, un lugar encantado en un mundo desencantado. Esta parcela de 40 hectáreas, es frecuentemente visitada por artistas y será inaugurada oficialmente el 14 de julio de 2000″.[10]

Aprovecho esta oportunidad para actualizar mi declaración y/o participación que en esa ocasión fue de índole poética visual, contestando a la pregunta ¿Qué opina usted del significado de una “República de Artistas”?.

Rastreando algunos conceptos originales circulados en la red de arte postal que oscilan entre la utopía y la realidad, entre otros el de: “The Eternal Network” (Robert Filliou), “Funtastic United Nations” (Vittore Baroni – Permario Cianni), o la siguiente frase citada en el proyecto Web de Matt Ferranto, “mail art in not an artistic island. it is a cultural peninsula”, http://www.spareroom.org/mailart/mailart.html[11] encontramos de forma análoga enunciados que expresan en su sintaxis experiencias de interacción relacionadas con ciertas nociones y a la vez convenciones asignadas al concepto de territorio, nación, sistema o red, al de cultura, prácticas artísticas, entre otras.

Adjetivos como eterna, divertimento fantástico, unidad, artístico, cultural, califican a ideas de sistema o entidades como Network (red de trabajo), naciones, isla, península, artistas y por extensión al de “República”, construcciones mentales que se enlazan para connotar experiencias que emergen de la ficción o simulación de la realidad como aspiración cultural de una interacción ética en un entorno sin exclusiones.

Estas regiones imaginarias no son para nada una idea utópica, es por tanto la confirmación de la sentida necesidad de establecer un limite en algún territorio del planeta donde no halla división de clases y exista más bien un consenso de valores, política, credo, costumbres y prácticas sociales, moral, etc.; es decir, una confluencia cultural de actividades y correspondencia real sin censura.

Portada Catálogo, Ambassadors of the Artist Republic. Rémy Pénard

Históricamente, el arte y sus ejecutores han creado e ideado en aras de revolucionar la institucionalidad artística un estanco donde discutir, proponer u oponer dialécticamente conceptos que debatieran el significado y la finalidad del arte mediante asociaciones, manifiestos, istmos, movimientos de vanguardia, neo vanguardia, siempre en constante secesión, debate, mutación y diálogo. La fundación de una “República de Artistas” autónoma, controvierte desde el punto de vista del Mail Art las características de “Tierra de Nadie” propia del arte oficial, una institución que termina por segregar a la gran mayoría, que no cumple por insuficiente su cometido, siempre corta de espacio, de presupuesto, ideología, política cultural, dependiente de viciados iconos y obras maestras para imponer su institucionalidad, que crea apartheid (Art is Apartheid)[12], segregación cultural, debido a lo pretendidamente hermético de su sistema, delimitando sus actividades a lo que el presupuesto o las partidas de dinero oficial, los fondos públicos, la empresa privada o los fieles mecenas les asignen para remozar y revivir su imagen cultural y paliar la agonía económica año tras año, exceptuando claro está, a las instituciones del primer mundo, que brillan por su inteligente administración y su gigantesca red de marketing consolidándose gracias a su bien calculado y estratégico negocio, sustentado por grupos de poder, accionistas, coleccionistas clásicos y el devoto público a quién no le queda otro remedio que consumir arte por nostalgia o por que el principio de realidad no le permite producirlo.

Como ilustración de lo anterior, presentaremos las tarjetas postales clasificadas como impresos para la correspondencia, enviadas por Stephen Perkins,[13] artista postal norteamericano activo en la red de arte postal desde 1984. Sus tarjetas nos saludan con mensajes conceptuales directos y explícitos a la manera de un retro-futurismo, como los siguientes: “museo de nada”, “museo de sueños”, museo de desacuerdos”, “museo de injusticias”, “museo de lamentos”, “un día sin artistas” o “manteniendo mi respiración por la

paz”, cuestionando el “Packaging cultural”, en relación con el punto décimo del manifiesto futurista (Marinetti, 1909).[14]

Mapa Región. República de Artistas. Creuse-Francia. Rémy Pénard.
Postcard. Eugénes Chabreuil & Rémy Pénard. Ambassadors of the Artists Republic at Vedéo Conférence of Mail Art Library Ussel – France (oct.02). Photo: Georges Chatain
Museum of Dreams (Museo de Sueños) – Tarjeta Postal. Stephen Perkins. USA 2008
Museum of nothing (Museo de nada) – Tarjeta postal. Stephen Perkins. USA. 2008
Museum of disappointments (Museo de desilusiones) – Tarjeta postal. Stephen Perkins. USA. 2008
Museum of sin (Museo de culpa) – Tarjeta postal. Stephen Perkins. USA. 2008
Museum of Regrets (Museo de lamentos) – Tarjeta Postal. Stephen Perkins. USA. 2008.
A day without artista (Un día sin artistas) – Tarjeta postal. Stephen Perkins. USA. 2008
Holding my breath for peace (Conteniendo el aliento por la paz) – Tarjeta postal. Stephen Perkins. USA. 2008
Tarjeta postale. Stephen Perkins. USA. 2008

Yuxtapuesto al paradigma museo, presentamos el modelo conocido como EMMA, siglas de, The Electronic Museum of Mail Art,[15] cuyo director y guía es Chuck Welch conocido como Crackerjack Kid, escritor, artista postal, activo participante como trabajador de la red desde 1978. En 1985, Welch auto produce su libro “Networking Currents”, permaneciendo como una publicación pionera acerca de los temas, problemas y la evolución de los artistas postales como Networkers (Obreros de la red); […] “analiza lo que denomina “Mail Art” como una forma de trabajo en red, y de esta forma lo que quiere extraer de cualquier contexto artístico que pudiera contaminar el proceso creativo de comunicación y del espíritu de comunidad que lo caracteriza.”[16] En enero de 1995, The University of Calgary Press, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; pública la edición denominada “Eternal Network: A Mail Art Anthology”,[17] la primera publicación editorial universitaria que explora las raíces históricas, la estética, y las nuevas direcciones del Mail Art contemporáneo en ensayos con referencias a prominentes artistas postales en los cinco continentes.

Podemos reseñar además desde EMMA los siguientes aspectos claves de esta publicación antológica que dan cuenta de su producción y pensamiento: el cuarto capítulo del libro ilustrado, examina el libre intercambio y colaboraciones de la comunidad internacional para quienes los buzones y los computadores reemplazan el museo, donde la dirección es el arte y donde “el arte postal no son las bellas artes, es el artista quién es bueno, excelente, fino, bello, etc.; “Whose mailboxes and computers replace the museum, where the address is the art, and where “mail art is not fine art, it is the artist who is fine” [18]

El libro presenta numerosas fotografías de artefactos posteados, eventos performáticos, congresos, hojas de estampillas de artistas (Artistamps), afiches, collages, libros de artista, poesía visual, arte computarizado, revistas de arte postal, arte de la copia (Copy Art) e imágenes de sellos de caucho artísticos; dividido en seis partes: Orígenes del Networking, Estética abierta, Nuevas direcciones, Interconexión de mundos, Problemas comunicativos y Reinos etéreos. Los apéndices incluyen direcciones de correo, exposiciones de arte postal, un listado y locaciones de cerca de 350 revistas subterráneas de arte postal y una comprensiva memoria de archivos internacionales públicos y privados.

Eternal Network: A Mail Art Anthology Book,1995.
The University of Calgary Press, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.[19]

Welch define a EMMA como el primer museo buzón electrónico donde la dirección es el arte, la red es la clave y la entrada es libre, (“EMMA is mail art’s first electronic mail box museum where the address is the art, the web is your key, and admission is free”)[20]

Los objetivos de EMMA son:

1. Introducir las comunidades de mail Art electrónico y de superficie (Snail Mail Art) a cualquiera.

2. Desarrollar el concepto de e-mail Art o arte correo electrónico a través de vínculos activos de correspondencia electrónica y Web sites.

3. Animar la interactividad del arte por correspondencia electrónica a través de visitas dentro de las salas, galerías y librerías de EMMA.

4. Promover el intercambio de imágenes. Los objetivos de EMMA reflejan los esfuerzos en proceso para contactar las comunidades de arte postal por fuera y por dentro del trabajo de vínculos en red a distancia o Telenetlink [20] por correo electrónico y actualizando el directorio de correspondencia electrónica.

Chuck Welch conocido como Crackerjack Kid, escritor, artista postal USA

Como contrapartida, el modelo de museo buzón electrónico reduce la mega estructura del museo físico a su mínima expresión al cambiar el arquetipo descomunal de su performance arquitectónica, administrativa y comunicativa, por un espacio virtual, inmaterial, que aloja, actualiza y distribuye la información gracias a la existencia del ciberespacio.

Los modelos se trastocan, museo, por museo buzón en red, descentralizado, comunitario, global; la dirección es declarada arte, es la entrada, el acceso libre a los datos del arte, con esto, se pasa de un archivo de átomos, de costosa manutención, exhibición y alojamiento por un archivo de proporciones binarias suspendido en discos rígidos diseminados y direccionados por el planeta en servidores como esculturas tecnológicas transitadas.

Esto es, comparativamente, los muros, las superficies, los accesos, salas y volúmenes, etc.; son minimizados en clusters, micro superficies distribuidas en discos rígidos, respaldo de la arquitectura informática, programática y algorítmica que aloja las manifestaciones del arte electrónico por correspondencia.

Por medio del diseño, la semiótica y la señalética visual, las interfaces gráficas nos dan acceso, lectura y tránsito a la red, cruce inmaterial por donde transitan los Cyber Networkers, con sus alias (nicknames), contraseñas (passwords) camino a sus buzones (mailbox), navegando a través de recursos nativos electro digitales como el hipertexto y la hipermedia para comunicar la tele correspondencia y agitar el intercambio de arte postal en red.


The MIDECIANT amplía sus fondos con 5.000 piezas del movimiento Mail Art International

Compartimos las imágenes documentales de la importante donación de Mail Art de Ibirico, César Reglero y Valdor; y la firma de los contratos con la UCLM. Gracias de nuevo por su confianza en nosotros.

El Museo Internacional de Electrografía, Centro de Innovación en Arte y Nuevas Tecnologías (MIDECIANT) de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM) amplía sus fondos con 5,000 piezas y miles de documentos complementarios del movimiento Mail Art de los artistas Ibirico, Reglero. y Valdor Con esta donación, este centro de la universidad regional amplía hasta más de 9.000 trabajos permanentes de arte electrográfico y digital.
Las colecciones de Mail Art de los artistas César Reglero, Antonio S. Ibirico y Salvador Benincasa se agregarán a la colección del Museo Internacional de Electrografía, Centro de Innovación en Arte y Nuevas Tecnologías (MIDECIANT) de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha. (UCLM) Tras el acuerdo firmado hoy en el Campus de Cuenca por el Vicerrector de la institución académica, Manuel Villasalero, y los donantes de esta colección de alrededor de 5.000 piezas y miles de documentos complementarios.

El Museo Internacional de Electrografía, Centro de Innovación en Arte y Nuevas Tecnologías (MIDECIANT) de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM) amplía sus fondos con 5,000 piezas y miles de documentos complementarios del movimiento Mail Art de los artistas Ibirico, Reglero. y Valdor Con esta donación, este centro de la universidad regional amplía hasta más de 9.000 trabajos permanentes de arte electrográfico y digital.
Las colecciones de Mail Art de los artistas César Reglero, Antonio S. Ibirico y Salvador Benincasa se agregarán a la colección del Museo Internacional de Electrografía, Centro de Innovación en Arte y Nuevas Tecnologías (MIDECIANT) de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha. (UCLM) Tras el acuerdo firmado hoy en el Campus de Cuenca por el Vicerrector de la institución académica, Manuel Villasalero, y los donantes de esta colección de alrededor de 5.000 piezas y miles de documentos complementarios.

Ibirico, César Reglero, Valdor

Museo Mausoleo de Morille-Salamanca. Convocatoria de Mail Art. Enterramiento Final

El Equipo AMAE/TDS

Participan en la organización por AMAE:Ibirico Saez Ibirico y Ana Herrero y por parte del Taller del Sol: Isabel Jover, Myriam Muriel Mercader VarelaManel Antoli y Cesar Reglero Campos …como enterrador Domingo Sánchez Blanco (Director del Mausoleo)…La romeria contó con la asistencia de los habitantes de Morille y con los participantes del Festival PAN… En este reportaje queremos reflejar  lo que fue un enterramiento histórico dentro de este movimiento considerado por los especialistas el más masivo de la historia. La convocatoria llevaba como subtitulo: Mail Art ¿Muerte o Resurrección? Fue un acto con muchos matices y pequeños detalles que merecen ser relatados y que así se hará en próximos capítulos. Nuestro agradecimiento a César, y Mercedes, a “Pequeño Poni” y a , Manuel Ambrosio Sánchez Sánchez, alcalde de Morille.

(*) 210 participantes; 350 obras; 33 países representados.

Dentro del encuentro transfronterizo: Vilarelhos (Alfândega da Fé) y Morille (PAN 2019: XVII edición) / Encuentro y Festival transfronterizo de Poesía, Patrimonio y Arte de Vanguardia en el Medio Rural. Tuvo lugar otro enterramiento y performance fotográficao de homenaje al gran hippolyte bayard y a todos los grandes fotógrafos (as) olvidados por la historia. Al frente del proyecto, y comandando la delegación lusa, Renato Roque, quien con esta fotografía de su autoría fue capaz de hermanar ambos eventos.

Como no podía ser de otra forma, rendimos merecido homenaje a Brain Cell y Ryosuke Cohen por su contribución a lograr que el mail art tenga una dimensión cósmica.(Fotografía de Renato Roque

Esta obra de Ibirico Saez Ibirico fué una las obras emblemáticas de esta convocatoria. Y el excelente fotógrafo Renato Roque supo recoger un instante mágico, justamente el momento en que CRC explicaba que a través de esta obra se podía llegar a la otra dimensión del arte correo, la que está más allá del espacio y del tiempo…y para alli viajan las 350 obras..

Las obras ya viajan hacia otras galaxias

Un momento trascendente fue sin duda cuando se depositaron las obras en el OVNI con el fin de que, en una nueva dimensión, pudieran disfrutar de una nueva y larga vida. Por supuesto, fueron los niños los primeros que entendieron la importancia del momento y los primeros que quisieron conectar con los habitantes de oras galaxias.

El arcángel y la amazona constituyeron dos figuras claves en este encuentro de entronque del mail art con las fuerzas cósmicas, porque no hay constelación ni nebulosa, ni sol ni planeta, en todas las profundidades del espacio ilimitado que no se comuniquen entre si y este es, sin duda, el destino del mail art dentro del universo. El arcángel y la amazona fueron los intermediarios que transportaron nuestros deseos a través del espacio infinito.(Fotografías de Jose Luis Romero Villar

Enterramiento Final. Algunas de las obras enviadas tienen una historia detrás, y un trabajo de diseño laborioso y muy detallista. Es el caso de la obra de Maya Lopez Muro, que, con su sello de caucho, certificó con acuse de recibo esta convocatoria.

Algunos aspectos de la exposición previa al enterramiento. Empezando por el registro estampado enviado por Maya Lopez Muro y materializado en el Ayuntamiento de Morille. El sello conmemorativo diseñado por Maya fue donado al alcalde.y al museo mausoleo.

Muchas gracias a Ana Herrero por el montaje de las secuencias.

Certificado de defunción que fue enterrado a cada participante

La Revista de Arte Postal ICARIA n.3, dirigida por Valdor, dedica un reportaje a la convocatoria de Mail Art: “Enterramiento Final. ¿Muerte o resurreción?. — con Myriam Muriel Mercader VarelaIbirico Saez IbiricoJesús Alonso OvejeroMaya Lopez MuroManel AntoliManuel Ambrosio Sánchez SánchezMercedes Martínez y Domingo Sánchez Blanco.